What are the signs and symptoms of bladder cancer?

Bladder cancer characteristically causes blood (redness) in the urine. This blood in the urine may be visible to the naked eye (gross/macroscopic hematuria) or detectable only by microscope (microscopic hematuria). Hematuria is the most common symptom in bladder cancer.

Other possible symptoms include pain during urination, frequent urination, or feeling the need to urinate without being able to do so. These signs and symptoms are not specific to bladder cancer, and are also caused by non-cancerous conditions, including prostate infections, over-active bladder and cystitis. There are many other causes of haematuria, such as bladder or ureteric stones, infection, kidney disease, kidney cancers and vascular malformations.